The Learning & Remembering Equation (Infographic)

The eLearning Guild’s DevLearn 2017 conference showcased numerous learning technology solutions. There was plenty of buzz surrounding digital and emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality, augmented reality, interactive video, mobile apps, and games. But the problem with all this hype is that sound learning science risks being ignored.

Regardless of what distribution choice you make, the requirements for learning and remembering remain unchanged. There are certain design factors you must include in your solutions for people to 1) learn and 2) later be able to recall and apply what they learned.

Our brains are wired to forget things. Today’s world is filled with so many distractions that it can be difficult to attend to anything, let alone remember it later. This infographic identifies and explains the learning and remembering equation. Use the equation to help you devise training solutions that truly help your learners recall information when they need it.

The first four factors relate directly to the learning process. The other three relate to remembering what we learned.

The Learning & Remembering Infographic

How Fantasy Elements Improve the Learning Experience

The idea of using whimsy and fantasy as part of a training program makes some learning leaders nervous. Will learners take the training seriously? Will serious-minded audiences be offended by the lighthearted approach? And most importantly, what will stakeholders think?

When it comes to teaching children, the concept of incorporating fantasy into the learning experience is well-researched. Again and again, researchers find there are benefits to adding a fantasy component, especially in learning games. (Parker & Lepper, 1992; Asgari & Kaufman, 2004; HabgoodAinsworth, & Benford, 2005).

Researcher Thomas Malone is frequently cited on the topic of fantasy and games. In the 1980’s, Malone investigated why games are fun and what makes them motivational. He conducted a study that looked at a number of games and dissected the elements of fun. Through this process, he identified three elements that make games intrinsically motivating: challenge, curiosity, and fantasy.

Fantasy checks out as an effective approach for teaching children, but what about adult learning? Is there a way to incorporate it into corporate training and see a measurable learning benefit? The short answer is yes, it’s possible and something we highly recommend instructional designers use. Here’s why:

Fantasy creates an immersive learner experience

When you hear “immersive learning experience,” you probably envision some type of virtual or augmented reality – two buzzwords in the L&D industry right now. These technologies allow learners to be at least partly, if not fully, immersed in different situations. But amidst all the tech hype, I want to take you back to the old school version of an “immersive experience” – a story. Do you remember growing up when your parents or grandparents read books to you? Do you read books now to your own kids? If you do, you know the stories in the books serve as an immersive experience for them because children are easily entranced by fairytales and fantasies!

When it comes to learning application, Deena Skolnick Weisberg conducted a study that showed, contrary to the consensus opinion at the time, that fantasy-based approaches helped children learn the meanings of words and perform better on a post-test than more realistic approaches. This is because the fantasy elements capture their attention, and in turn, may help them to learn more.

Fantasy as an Adult Learning Tool

Although our child-like imaginations may fade, the concept of using fantasy elements for learning applies to adults as well. In this articleDr. Karl Kapp discusses how fantasy elements and story can aid in adult learning. He says that by anchoring content to a story or fantasy element, it becomes more memorable and possibly even emotional. Fantasy can improve memorization by provoking vivid images related to the material.

Fantasy can be a useful way to help adult learners accept situations they’d otherwise object to as not being realistic enough to fit their specific work world. The fantasy elements make it clear it’s not supposed to be an exact representation of their world. The ability to safely explore something we’d normally consider too “out there” to be a part of is one reason fantasy is engaging. In the workplace, mistakes can be costly. Allowing people to roleplay or imagine in an eLearning course is a safe practice area that causes no harm.

Fantasy creates emotional connections

A fantasy-based learning solution can also allow someone to connect with the learning experiences and temporarily forget real-world concerns or fears. This means that they don’t think to themselves “this is product differentiation training with clients and I’ve never done well in this area.” Instead, they work within the fantasy environment, which can help them transfer those skills to the real world.

To provide even more emotional connection, you could include characters in an eLearning course that have a high degree of personal relevance. This is so you can reach people of all different ages, gender, class, race, etc. depending on your target learners.

Fantasy motivates and engages in a whole new way

A few year ago, the US Military staged a zombie apocalypse as part of a counter-terrorism summit. Zombies invaded an island that was transformed with Hollywood-style sets, including a Middle Eastern village and a pirate cove. Some 1,000 US military personnel, police, and state and federal government officials were charged with responding.

“The zombie apocalypse is very whimsical. The scenario was created to add some levity to the more dire scenarios summit-goers will encounter including terrorists roaming hospital halls shooting people and pilots trapped behind enemy lines.”

fantasy for training

Tony Gutierrez/AP;

This kind of scenario training moves simulation into a new dimension, providing real-life experience solving fictional or “fantastical”—but realistic—problems. Training that focuses just on teaching the necessary material can lead to learner boredom, burnout, and tune-out. But by merging fantasy with reality, you’re likely to be more successful at keeping people engaged in training. And the more people are engaged, the more information they’re likely to retain. On the opposite spectrum, focusing too much on a fun, novel approach can lead to training that is not linked well to learning principles. The best learning solutions will connect these two extremes.

In general, fantasy elements should reinforce instructional goals, not compete with them. Fantasies should provide appropriate metaphors or analogies for the presented learning material. That being said, you don’t need to include fantasy in every single piece of training material. At some point, your learners need to practice the desired behavior in a more realistic setting.

Design Thinking: Level-Up the Learner Experience

Two years ago I was at a CLO conference in Austin, Texas. The keynote speaker asked a question that gave me pause then – and continues to drive me now. He asked, “Is the 45-minute course you created a good use of 45 minutes of the learner’s life? Because those are 45 minutes of time that individual does not get back.”

“Learner experience” (LX) is an emerging buzz term that originated from the software world, which focuses on “UX” or user experience. The question the speaker posed at the conference goes to the heart of what an effective user experience (aka learner experience) delivers to someone, which is three things:

1. Value – A good UX is one that solves a real problem for the user. If we deliver value, we are not wasting minutes of someone’s life.
2. Ease of use – A good UX is one that a user finds easy to navigate and to understand how to use. If we make something easy to use and to understand, we are supporting value (the first tenet of good UX).
3. Enjoyable – A good UX is a pleasure to use. It engages us and, optimally, it delights us.

Typically, UX refers to the experience of using software. But it can actually go way beyond software to our experiences in the real world. This could include our experience with a utensil, attending an event, or onboarding with a new organization or role. It has huge relevance to effective learning design.

So what happened?

Somewhere in the actual practice of instructional design, we throw this equation out of balance. We allow our stakeholders to exclude target learners from the design process and trust them to “represent” the learner. Or we become boxed in by the technical solutions that someone decided were going to become the “global” solutions for every learning in every situation (e.g. the LMS, the eLearning course created via a rapid authoring tool, the webinar, etc.)

The result, too often, is solutions that are out of balance. They may be viable from a business perspective and feasible from a technical perspective, but they completely miss the mark from the learner perspective. Or, they may be awesome from the learner point of view but technically unsustainable or unviable business-wise.

Design Thinking as a Solution

So how do we get to an optimal learning experience? How do we bring the target learner back into the design process in a way that is actually feasible for a business?

Try taking a step away from the L&D world and into the world of complex problem solving and product development. Consider embracing the philosophy, steps, and tools of a practice known as “design thinking.” Design thinking originated in 1969 and really came into its own in the 1990s as a human-centered approach to designing solutions. It has been used to resolve massive human problems as well as to design software solutions or consumer products.

Design thinking evolves solutions through an iterative process of observation, insight, ideation, experimentation, and testing. Its goal is to produce solutions that find the ”sweet spot” between human needs, business viability, and technical feasibility. The end user of the solution is the focal point. Any solution devised through the process must be designed with this user top-of-mind and involved in the formulation, design, and testing of the solution.

In its original form, design thinking included five steps. Many practitioners have added a sixth – implementation – for a highly iterative process that looks like this:

Design Thinking Tools

There is a rich set of tools associated with design thinking – tools to help build genuine empathy for and understanding of the user (aka our learner), tools to help with problem definition (it’s usually not what you think it is), tools to help ideate possible solutions to the problem, and tools for testing and analyzing solutions. These are four tools I really, really love:

1. Empathy Maps

Empathy maps help people quickly form a picture of the target user and see where gaps in understanding might be. In a learning design project, these can be used to quickly help a design team form insights about learners or recognize gaps in understanding that need to be closed. There are tons of resources on empathy map developing – just google “empathy maps” to find examples and templates.

2. User Personas

A polished output of empathy maps, personas are the result of observation and conversation with users to help inform understanding of what they value, what their pain points are, what their workflow and daily reality really is (so you can design solutions that reflect understanding of this workflow and daily realities). I love Arun Pradhan’s explanation of how they craft personas and get insights into target learners. They actually involve the learners in the design process and get them to interview each other. (This is huge in terms of time savings and a much more credible way to get perspective on the target learner.)

Our worksheet lets you check to see what questions you are currently asking about learners, see a sample learner persona
and create a persona of your own.

3. Analysis Matrix

Four quadrants to plot during solution testing: what people liked, what they didn’t like, what they had questions about, and what they would change.

4. Journey Maps

Journey maps show what a learning experience is actually like for a learner, what the pain points are, and what opportunities could be leveraged. This presentation by Joyce Seitzinger on crafting a meaningful learning experience shows the evolution of a journey map. She uses design thinking to craft the entire experience.

Here’s a simple starter template if you want to try creating one yourself. The categories to plot are on the left column. The steps involved go across the top.

I love design thinking’s belief in collaborative, team-based design and experimentation. I see it as compatible with both agile philosophy and instructional design methodology. The tools and techniques of design thinking, coupled with an agile philosophy and a commitment to research-based instructional design, enable us to deliver learning experiences that:

1. Deliver value to the learner and the organization.
2. Are easy to use and understand
3. Are enjoyable and engaging.

Show and Tell: Gamified eLearning in Articulate Storyline 3

Today, it’s more important than ever to not pump out boring eLearning courses. If your content and interactions aren’t memorable, the information won’t stick. And with learners’ high expectations, you don’t want to disappoint.

While we build learning games using a variety of development tools, you’d be amazed at how far a developer can take Articulate Storyline when creating game-like experiences.

We want to highlight a recent project from our own Learning Technologist, Kathryn Steele. Kathryn created an eLearning course in Articulate Storyline 3 called “Abby Goes to the OBGYN.” The results demonstrate how an eLearning course can use game elements to simulate a learner’s journey and make the learner part of the experience.

Learning Overview

Abby Goes to the OBGYN is a learner-controlled eLearning experience. It makes a linear course feel interactive and engaging because learners are able to actively participate. In a course, active learning goes beyond passively reading content, listening to a lecture, or watching a video. It’s a learning technique that challenges learners to engage through the following ways:

  • Mental contributions
  • Hands-on activities
  • Investigation, discovery, and interpretation

By combining active learning with a learner-centered approach, Abby Goes to the OBGYN gives people the illusion that they are in control of their learning. It motivates them to learn and gives them the power and opportunity to explore.

The course also includes various game elements and mechanics that enhance the overall learner experience. For example, the use of story pulls through the entire course. The learner follows Abby’s journey as she visits the OBGYN clinic. It’s much easier to remember facts when they are part of a narrative, rather than when we simply have the facts devoid of any “story” or context around them. The course also includes aesthetics that help pull players in. They offer visual cues that guide the course direction.

Technical Overview

If you are an eLearning Developer who is highly technical or just love to know how things work…this section is for you!

Abby Goes to the OBGYN uses two important features: animated .gifs and triggers. Abby is composed of six different states that allow her to move in different directions. She can walk left, walk right, face left, face right, sit, and face backward. When the learner presses a designated key for a certain direction, Abby’s walk states are triggered to move along a relative motion path. Her static states (face left, face right, etc.) are triggered when the motion path completes. This allows Abby to start in a static state, walk, and end in a static state along a single relative point motion path. Abby’s sit and back states are triggered when the user presses a designated key and serve as an interactive trigger for various objects on the stage.

Trigger Options

These interactions are possible by using Articulate Storyline 3’s new trigger options. These triggers are “object intersects” and “object intersection ends.” Combining these two functions triggers when Abby, our object, intersects with a target. In this course, the receptionist is a good example of a target. In order to check in for her appointment, Abby must intersect with the receptionist. If you want to revert an event, you can create another event when Abby stops intersecting with a target.

Using true/false variable triggers can cause layers and objects to appear when Abby intersects and stops intersecting if her state changes. For example, if we want an event to trigger when Abby sits on an object, we create triggers that not only happen when Abby is intersecting with the object, but also when that object is set to “true.” We can use these same trigger combinations for various other interactions in our eLearning courses to show or hide layers, hide or unhide objects, and limit or control player mobility.

You can learn more about this eLearning experience by viewing the full course here.

Bonus Feature

Although you’re never directly guided to them… there are several “easter eggs” spread throughout the game that you can click. (Not necessary, but fun little interactions for those people who like to click on everything).

These items include:

  • Cat: you can click on him whenever he is on the page and he purrs.
  • Bell in the lobby: (5 times, 10 times, and 15 times). Eventually, the receptionist will take it away.
  • Picture frames: in the opening scene with the Play to Learn cover and the Blockbusters team logo.
  • Window & exam table in the patient room.
  • Fridge opens & blinds close: in the last slide with the rotating scenes.

You can also view Kathryn’s Articulate Forum post on the course here.

Blended Learning 101: Basics, Benefits & Best Practices

blended learning

According to our research, the overwhelming majority of organizations use a blended learning strategy to deliver training. Blended learning is the norm, not the exception. This likely comes as no surprise to you. Online is often the method of choice for fact-based knowledge and performance support, while instructor-led training and other interpersonal activities are the standard go-to for helping learners build soft skills and practice complex tasks.

If you are new to training and development or just looking for a refresher, this article is for you. Read on to learn the basics of blended learning, its key benefits and the best practices we use when designing blended learning curriculums.

What is blended learning?

Blended learning is a combination of learning solutions. Essentially, it combines classroom or face-to-face learning with self-paced online learning. This gives learners an element of control over time, place, path, and/or pace. Blended learning uses multiple delivery methods to present a series of learning events. Delivery methods may include eLearning, video, mobile, and/or live training. This helps present learning content in a way that best serves the learner and the content being taught.

Benefits of Blended Learning

A blended learning strategy can benefit your employees, as a variety of learning approaches can stimulate their interest and increase their engagement. Blended learning offers:

1. The best of both worlds

Blended learning allows the flexibility of an online course while retaining the benefits of the face-to-face classroom experience. It gives the learner time to learn when it is most convenient for them. Learners can complete introductory modules at their own pace, rather than the pace of the slowest or fastest member of a group in the class environment. Then, learners benefit from the hands-on practice and coaching opportunities that face-to-face training provides for your more challenging learning objectives.

Blended learning also allows you to provide the right contextual practice via live, face-to-face training. It doesn’t force you to make concessions but allows you to create the interactions that are going to benefit your learners the most.

2. Stronger learner engagement and knowledge retention

Learning science shows that knowledge retention can significantly improve with the addition of a new element in the learning process. This is true even if it is something as simple as a drag and drop interaction in an eLearning course. By offering a variety of different approaches, blended learning can help learners remember what they need to be successful on the job. Blending face-to-face and online training creates a much richer training experience. It helps your employees learn and remember much easier than they would if they were offered a single-solution approach.

3. Simplified training logistics

Blended learning also reduces the cost of delivering basic, foundational knowledge. Depending on the solution used, analytics and completion data will give you a picture of what learners know and don’t know before they attend a live session. Because everyone completes the same pre-work or online modules, you can then teach the actual application of these skills in the face-to-face environment.

Potential Downfalls of Blended Learning

When I spoke with some of our Learning Technologists, most of them mentioned time and budget as possible constraints to a robust blended learning strategy. Blended learning obviously takes more time to design and develop than just a single course, for example. If some stakeholders are skeptical of the upfront investment, a strong training implementation strategy can help identify potential risks and build consensus early.

Other possible challenges include:

Finding facilitators for the live training events: Like any projects that involve logistics and scheduling, allow plenty of time to plan for this early on.

Making sure learners complete the pre-work before attending ILT: Create a communications strategy and align efforts with learners’ managers. Make learners aware that top performers will be recognized and rewarded when they attend the live training event.

Making sure learners are engaged and pay attention during ILT: Design a variety of interactive activities and avoid lecture at all costs.

Ensuring that learners complete any post-work and use the provided performance support tools: Perform a careful needs analysis up front to ensure you are designing the optimal tools for learners.

Blended learning curriculum design: What to consider

Create a cohesive curriculum

One of the most important things to consider when designing a blended learning curriculum is how to l solutions in a curriculum feel consistent and connected. How does the live meeting build on the pre-work, for example? A blended curriculum shouldn’t just repeat everything from one learning solution to another. All the solutions should work together to reach the common goal. Often, you may decide to use a story or a theme throughout to tie the pieces together. It should feel like one experience to the learner, not a series of separate courses or events.

Identify any constraints

You also want to consider your constraints. Your budget, timeline, and the time your learners have available all have a huge impact on what the right learning solution will be for your situation. A realistic picture of your project constraints will help you decide what to cover in an eLearning course, what can be done in person, and what should be used for follow-up.

Take a look at some of the blended learning curriculums we’ve created for organizations just like yours.

How to Successfully Implement a Training Program

There are many famous quotes about planning – or the failure to plan. I like this one as it relates to the implementation of anything:

“By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.” – Benjamin Franklin

Herman Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve has gotten a lot of new buzz in the past few years. L&D practitioners and thought leaders talk about it a lot with the primary purpose of eliminating it through good instructional design. We ourselves have written about the forgetting curve and why it matters.

Reinforcement and spaced practice is a significant component to help someone actually use what you are trying to teach them. It’s one ingredient to ensuring successful implementation, but it’s not enough. You also must plan out everything else that needs to happen for your solution to really solve a problem. Excellent learning design and great content are important, but they miss the mark if we fail to consider what’s required for a solution to be implemented well and sustained over time.

When I do workshop sessions on implementation planning, I start by asking people to reflect on the Monday that will follow my session, which is typically their first day back at their jobs. These are the questions I ask participants to think about:

These questions help participants realize that they are no different than the learners for whom they design solutions. They have a tsunami of stuff awaiting them back at their jobs; so do their learners. The largest, most painful or loud thing gets their attention when they return to the work world; this fact also is true for their learners. Unless what someone learned at a conference, workshop or in an eLearning course solves an immediate pain point for them, it’s not likely to have much sticking power without lots of reinforcement and implementation support.

The cost of poor implementation versus the value of strong implementation

When I do sessions on implementation planning, I also ask participants to consider the cost of the forgetting curve or of poor/nonexistent transfer versus the benefits they hope to achieve. I am shocked at how few people can quantify their business problem or business opportunity. Saying people don’t know something is not a business problem unless you can quantify what it costs for people to not know something.

Here are a few stories to illustrate costs versus value:

Story 1: Solving a problem

Sally works for ACME corporation as its HR Generalist. ACME employs 100 people and wants to reduce its annual turnover percentage from 15% to 10%. Study after study shows that employee turnover costs companies a lot of money and ACME has taken note! Its average employee salary is $50,000, and it estimates it spends $75,000 to replace a single $50K employee.

ACME has done a stellar job of needs assessment and confirmed that poor employee onboarding is the primary reason for its turnover problem. Sending Sally to training on how to design a better employee onboarding program seems like a great solution. If ACME’s estimated cost is $75K per employee for turnover, its annual turnover cost is approximately $1.125M. If ACME can shrink turnover from 15% to 10%, it would reduce its annual turnover costs to $750K, a savings of $375K.

Let’s assume that the training Sally attends is brilliant. Its contents perfectly mirror what Sally needs to learn. She is focused during the workshop and takes copious notes. Did ACME get a good ROI on its investment in sending Sally to training?

We don’t know yet! Sally has implemented nothing; she has merely attended the training.

Here’s what we do know:

Effective implementation requires more than Sally participating in the training program. When she returns from training, these things also have to happen:

  • She has to have the time to develop a new onboarding program. She also has to introduce it to the organization and anyone who will have a role in executing onboarding tasks. And she needs to prepare each person who will have a role so they can be successful in their implementation.
  • Other managers, employees, and stakeholders have to buy in to what she is doing and support it.
  • She has to have a budget for producing any materials required for it.
  • Its importance within the organization needs to be reinforced to her as she develops and executes to avoid her time and attention being diverted elsewhere.
  • She has to reinforce its importance to all others who have a role in onboarding.

If those things don’t happen or only happen in a limited way, the organization is not likely to see results from its investment in training.

Here’s what failure could cost the organization:

Conversely, if everything goes well with Sally’s implementation of what she learned, the organization is likely to reap a nice ROI, even if ACME doesn’t get its full 5% reduction in turnover. Even a 2% reduction in turnover would save ACME $150K/year, a decent return on an initial $5k investment.

Story 2: A business opportunity

SamplesRUs has a sales force of 250. It is doing a global launch of a software-as-a-service product that is priced at $20K/year. The target market is small to mid-sized hospitals. Its sales force is going to invest 20 hours of time into learning about the product’s features, benefits, and competitors. Formal training will help reps learn how to assess needs, demo the product, and deliver sales messages related to those needs.

SamplesRUs has done its market research and believes the sales team can generate $125M in revenue on this product in Year 1 with a full 80% of customers retained in Year 2 for renewals amounting to $100M plus additional new sales of another $100M for Year 2 sales of $200M. The customer need is clear. The product is excellent. Based on market analysis, the price point seems reasonable compared to other products.

What’s the cost if the forgetting curve post-training is high and SamplesRUs doesn’t do a great job thinking through post-training implementation? Beyond the hard costs of $200K for the global launch training experience for 250 reps, there is the loss from sales that never happened or renewals that didn’t occur. If reps only achieve 50% of first-year targeted sales, then about $65M in sales didn’t happen.

The reasons for this could be due to:
  • No post-training reinforcement of the product knowledge covered during training particularly spaced out over time.
  • Poor or nonexistent coaching from sales managers.
  • No practice of the demoing skills acquired in training, which made sales reps fumble or be awkward when they got into sales situations.
  • Poor communication with Marketing on the sales enablement tools that would best support reps.
  • Weak or inconsistent efforts on the part of Marketing to generate leads that the sales reps could then call on.
  • Weak or absent product support from the Customer Enablement group, which, in turn, leads to lower renewals than projected.

Training Program Implementation Planning

Implementation plans matter. Follow-through matters. If your organization is trying to design and implement a solution and you have not created any sort of implementation plan in conjunction with that effort, there is a huge risk that you will expend a lot and get little to no return on the expenditures.

Good implementation plans start with these things:

  • An implementation readiness assessment with honest answers as to where your organization is ready to support an initiative and where it is not.
  • An implementation strategy that defines the effort being undertaken, business outcomes it should produce, how outcomes will be measured, the stakeholders, the resources required, the target audience, current performance level, and desired performance level.
  • A risk analysis and strategies for mitigating risks.
  • A communication plan that considers all the people who need to know what’s going on, the appropriate distribution channels and message formats, and the frequency and timing of those messages.
  • A change management plan that factors in what’s changing, how it’s changing, people’s anticipated reactions to the change, and what the change will cost them/how it will benefit them.

Use our Training Program Implementation Kit to help you start thinking through all the elements required for an effective solution implementation.

Emerging Learning Technologies: Promise vs. Hype

Go to any of the big L&D conferences or trade shows and you’ll hear buzz and conversation about virtual reality, augmented reality, and 360 video. Explore the pages of Inc., Forbes, Tech Crunch, or Mashable and you’ll find articles. Search Twitter using the hashtags #AR, #VR, #360video and you’ll find links to innumerable posts.

For almost a decade now, we’ve been hearing that these “emerging” technologies will become viable solutions to add to the L&D practitioner’s toolbox. I’m a bit of a geek when it comes to emerging technologies of any kind so I follow these discussions and explore where I can. After watching and waiting for numerous years, I felt like this year is the year where all three technologies reached a tipping point, of sorts.

So, last month, our Director of Technology, Brandon Penticuff, along with a great team of people, hosted an “emerging technologies” day so everyone at BLP could experience the new tech in the span of a two-hour hands-on lab. Afterward, we talked about what we saw as promise, and what we saw as “hype.”

This post summarizes what we explored, how we felt about it, what we learned, and what we plan to do next.

The technology defined

Want to replicate our learning lab? Here’s how we defined each technology and the tools we used to explore it:

  • Virtual Reality – This is the “hottest” of the three technologies in terms of the buzz it generates and its sizzle factor. It is computer technology that uses headsets, sometimes in combination with physical spaces or multi-projected environments to generate a completely artificial environment into which a user can become completely immersed. It often uses other inputs such as wands to allow for interaction through simulated touch or tool use. For our demo’s, we used HTC’s Vive and PlayStation VR.
  • Augmented Reality – This emerging technology seems to have the greatest challenge getting people to understand how it can add value or even what it actually is. It is the integration of digital information with a user’s real environment. Unlike VR, which creates a completely artificial environment, AR uses the existing environment and overlays digital information on top of it. For our demos, we relied on the iPhone and a Nintendo 3DS, along with some AR cards designed for use with the Nintendo.
  • 360 Video – This type of video is frequently labeled “virtual reality,” but we see it as a distinct category. These videos are also often called “immersive” videos because the intent is to immerse you in whatever environment they display. They are videos where a view in every direction (360 degrees) is recorded at the same time, typically by using a omnidirectional camera. The viewer has control of the viewing direction. We used an Insta360 Nano camera (purchased for $199) to record video and Wonda VR (subscription-based software as a service with a free trial) to create an immersive, interactive prototype for our team to test.

What we explored

We took commercial games available for Vive and Playstation VR, videos we could get via Oculus store and via Nintendo, and an interactive 360 video we created ourselves and allowed people to play. Via virtual reality headsets, people cooked recipes, battled spaceships, demonstrated archery skills, competed in a luge competition, and played a fancy form of Pong. They escaped from a crumbling skyscraper under attack by unknown enemies. They solved puzzles that emerged when placing a Nintendo DS over a simple “AR” card. In the interactive 360 video we created, they figured out where the safety hazards were in our office.

Our reactions to it

VR made several of us nauseous – not just one or two of us, but a few of us. For me, at least, the feeling of motion sickness lasted a few hours afterward. We aren’t unique. A quick scan of the landscape reveals that motion sickness with VR is a common problem (25% – 40% experience it). Women experience it more than men. People over 50 and 12 and under have more trouble with it than those in between those ages.

Despite the motion sickness, almost everyone was at least initially engaged by what they saw and experienced. There was lots of laughter and variations of the phrase, “Oh cool!” echoing around the area as people experienced the various games and apps.

The headsets required for VR and the 360 video were cumbersome and not super comfortable to wear. Google Cardboard viewer isn’t a comfortable device to use because of having to hold it up to your head. But a cheap $25 headset like this works just fine for viewing videos.

What we learned and what we’ll recommend to customers

Virtual Reality

There are very specific situations where full-blown virtual reality will definitely make an amazing difference in a learning experience. Those situations will be very specific and the minority of corporate situations rather than the majority of them. The best use case is going to be cases where learners need to build skill prior to being able to perform on a job. And this skill is difficult or impossible to simulate without creating an entire artificial training environment of some sort. (Think about surgeries, firefighting, operating large, complex expensive equipment.)

Even in situations where the use case is strong, these hurdles must be addressed:

  • Hardware requirements – Right now, users have to be tethered to a computer, which puts some constraint on where you conduct training.
  • Motion sickness factor – The high incidence of motion sickness means that the duration of most VR experiences must be limited (10-15 minutes seemed to be tolerable for our team. A few of our experienced VR users did say that motion sickness becomes less pronounced if you gradually increase your exposure over time, but most training situations won’t allow this.)
  • Development and maintenance expenses – Right now, VR is expensive to produce. It requires 3D art, skilled programmers, and specific tools that aren’t in the “rapid authoring tools” category.
Augmented Reality

Our team was decidedly mixed on this. Brandon points out that its best uses are going to be as a reference tool or guide. Consider the backup cameras in newer cars. These contain digital overlays to make it easy to guide your car as you back up. This use of augmented reality is simple but very effective. We all agreed it could have some great specific applications. But these would be more reference or resource applications than training applications. For example, agricultural sales reps might benefit from being able to position a phone over a field and “see” a crop emerge from the ground and virtually “grow” in front of them, showing them what a plant looks like in its natural environment at various stages of its development.

At its simplest level, being able to position your phone over an icon on a piece of equipment and have a troubleshooting checklist become visible could be helpful.

360 Interactive Video

This technology excited us the most. Wonda VR let us create interactions that a viewer can control with eye movements. This allows learners to practice making decisions in an environment that mirrors the one in which we want them to demonstrate skills or recall knowledge. The price is right, the solutions are easy to develop, and videos can be watched as 3D experiences… or not, depending on equipment and need.

The Forgetting Curve: What It Is and Why It Matters

forgetting curve

If you’ve been in the industry long enough, you’ve probably heard about (drum roll please) the forgetting curve. It’s an often-used, and sometimes over-used concept that refers to the human tendency to rapidly forget what we learn without subsequent relearning or reinforcement.

You’ll hear vendors cite the forgetting curve as the reason you need their product or service. “Learners will forget 90% of what they learn in 30 days without reinforcement!” “70% of what people learn is quickly forgotten!” I’ve seen it quoted as 30% before, too.

There are lots of conflicting claims out there about what the forgetting curve actually is, how quickly people forget, and what trainers can do about it. But despite the confusion, trainers can’t afford to ignore the forgetting curve. When forgetting is properly planned for, it is just another design constraint. But when we pretend forgetting won’t happen or assume forgetting doesn’t matter, it becomes a value killer.

The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve

Some of the most commonly misquoted facts about the forgetting curve deal with its origin. Here are the facts:

  • Herman Ebbinghaus conducted two separate experiments on himself in 1880 and 1885.
  • Ebbinghaus taught himself a list of nonsense syllables, tried to relearn the list after various amounts of time had elapsed and measured how much he had to “relearn”. One of his studies lasted as long as seven months, and he repeated the same procedures virtually every day.
  • He found that the more time elapsed between originally relearning a list and his attempt to relearn it, the longer it took to relearn it. This increased until it was almost as if he had never learned the list to begin with.

The results of Ebbinghaus’ studies might seem like common sense to us today, but I found myself with a few questions once I first learned how these studies were conducted.

  • If Ebbinghaus was the only subject, how do we know that his curve is accurate? Is his brain an outlier?
  • Ebbinghaus was learning and relearning lists of nonsense syllables. What about learning about, say, a new product that is semi-related to a previous product a sales rep sells? How much would they forget in this scenario?
  • These studies were conducted in 1880 and 1885. Would they pass muster today? Can they be replicated?

Replication of the Forgetting Curve

As I was preparing for the Reinforcement 101 presentation Leanne Batchelder and I gave at the LTEN Annual Conference and in a subsequent webinar, I found a fascinating study where the authors attempted to replicate Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve. Jaap M. J. Murre and Joeri Dros published the results of their work in July, 2015.

You can read the full paper if you are interested, but here are the main takeaways:

  • Murre and Dros conducted a faithful replication of Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve experiment, once again using a single subject.
  • Their results were similar to the original forgetting curve and other recent replication attempts with some slight variation.

Murre, J. M. J., & Dros, J. (2015). Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0120644.

While there are many experiments in the field of cognitive psychology that researchers have not been able to replicate, the forgetting curve has stood the test of time. The research (and our own experience) tells us that we can rely on it as a sound concept.

So what do we do about it?

From Learning Events to Learning Campaigns

Whether it takes place live or online, most training is designed event-based. Learners log on, take training on X, log off, and move on with their lives. In a more expensive example, learners fly in, participate in a training event while multitasking and checking their phones, fly home, and move on with their lives.

What do we really expect them to remember if this is the only planned training activity?

Since the human brain is wired to forget without repeated exposure and practice, trainers have to think beyond an event-based model. This is why the concept of a learning campaign has been gaining in popularity.

Similar to a blended learning curriculum, a learning campaign borrows elements from marketing, communications, and behavioral psychology to make learning experiences more effective at driving behavior change.

At the most basic level, a learning campaign includes:

  • Cohesive branding and theme for the training initiative to generate excitement, motivation, and interest.
  • A clear value proposition for the learner, who should understand how the training connects to the bigger picture.
  • Timely reminders that are designed more like marketing messages than traditional emails from the L&D department.
  • Elements of “fun” incorporated throughout, whether that means a competition of some sort or the use of full-fledged learning games that connect to the campaign theme.
  • Online learning tools that are available on learners’ device of choice.
  • Reinforcement tools, such as Knowledge Guru, that are designed to help fight the forgetting curve and help learners remember things they need to know “cold”.

There are many reasons why it is hard to overcome the forgetting curve, but the first step is awareness. If you are dealing with a skeptical stakeholder who doesn’t want to invest in training that will actually help prevent forgetting, show them the research!

Articulate 360 Review: Why Your Business Should Strongly Consider Upgrading

Have you ever watched Bob Ross paint, amazed by how the piece is taking shape? Have you ever watched Bobby Flay pan sear a ribeye to perfection? What do Bobby Flay and Bob Ross have in common?

They use the best tool available for the job.

Bob Ross wouldn’t be as smooth without his Van Dyke Brown… Bobby Flay’s dishes not as delicious without his cast iron skillet.

You will never find the perfect eLearning tool, ever. No matter how many you test. Every tool will have one feature or two over another forever… in perpetuity. What you can find, is a tool that is usable, useful, teachable, learnable, and that gives you the most back for what you can put into it.

In this humble Multimedia Manager’s opinion, Articulate 360 is your new best option. Articulate provides the best tools for rapid authoring in the industry, and upgrading to the 360 subscription model ensures your team will always have the latest and greatest authoring tools at their fingertips.

Let’s dive into some of the key tools.

Articulate Storyline 360:

The flagship, the bread and butter, the big kahuna. While there are some nice new features, Storyline is not what excites me most.

Responsive Player: Did you get excited when I said “responsive”? Yeah, everybody does.

While a responsive player is heavily touted addition to Storyline 360, in reality, the player leaves developers a little wanting. In a nutshell, the responsive player provides a minimalist UI around your course with a hamburger menu on small devices. You can zoom in to stuff that’s too small, and… well, that’s all, folks.

Sometimes the responsive player ends up being a bit of a miss. For example, I had a hard time interacting buttons that appeared low on my iPhone 5s in multiple courses I tested.

In the Storyline 360 authoring tool, you can’t hide/show content, branch, or change interactions based on screen size like you can in Lectora or Captivate. But you might be surprised to learn that I think this is a good thing. Lectora and Captivate can both be cumbersome and a little difficult for most new developers to learn. Small device content should be thought of mobile-first… Not a “Let’s just hide stuff that doesn’t work on the phone” solution.

You can force portrait or landscape orientation (to an okay degree) and you can preview what content will look like in Storyline, but it’s better to upload and test on a device.

Better HTML5 output: One of the best, most unspoken new features is an optimized HTML5 engine. Got a team taking training on older iPads? With the better HTML5 engine, republishing courses using a new version of Storyline may improve crash issues on mobile devices lacking in RAM.

Flash vs. HTML5: You can publish to Flash, HTML5, or both (and prioritize either over the other). Does your company want to decrease Flash use and focus on future browsers with HTML5? You can publish with a priority to HTML5, and only the folks with dinosaur computers/browsers will see the Flash.

It was the opposite in previous versions.

The Dial Tool: You like sliders? We’ll then I’ve got a dial for you. Did you know that a dial is basically a round slider? With a skilled developer and imagination, dials can do cool things, but this is not what you should pay the price of admission for.

Other Stuff: Improved accessibility options, improved options for rendering video (no additional compression), ability to add subtitle files for audio/video, improved motion path options, collision triggers, and more are all included.

Killer Feature: The integration with the other Articulate 360 tools is what sets the new Storyline apart. Quickly iterate by publishing directly to Articulate 360 Review (you can even publish a single scene or slide for review) or jumpstart your project by importing a theme, images, and characters from the included Content Library.

Honorable Mention: The Insert > Input button looks like a drunk robot… and I love that.


Upgrade Grade: B-

The improved HTML5 publish plus integration with the Content Library are great to have, but probably don’t sell the tool alone. The responsive player is a stop-gap for now so your Storyline courses are at least usable (in some regard) on a phone. I’m guessing Articulate will have something better in the next year or so. 

Review 360:

When it comes to bang-for your buck, Review 360 is the clear winner here. Iteration on eLearning has long been a pain-point in the industry, and Review 360 looks to fix that.

Simply put, Review 360 is a step forward in eLearning review and iteration.

Need feedback on a course? Easy, publish from Storyline.

Need feedback on one slide/scene? Also just as easy (publish just a slide/scene).

Need feedback from multiple, different reviewers? Easy, publish with different titles and invite the right people.

Need to find an issue as a developer? Easy, you get a screenshot of what the user is seeing with the edit.

Want to iterate in the tool, online. Straightforward.

Prefer to iterate offline in excel. Easy, export a CSV.

Killer Feature: Screenshots with each edit. Give a developer an edit with only words and a page title and watch them cringe. Give them the same info with a screenshot and watch them kick butt. The ability to review a single slide/scene is up there, too.

Honorable Mention: Want to know when you get feedback? You can receive notification of feedback immediately, every hour, day, week, or never, if you’d like.

Upgrade Grade: A-

It doesn’t have all the features we could dream up, but you’ll get the latest features with your subscription to Articulate 360. If implemented correctly, and used well, I honestly feel like this tool could reduce reviewing bloat (clarification of edits, ease of review, etc.) almost in half.

That’s a huge deal.

Articulate Rise 360:

Rise 360 is where Articulate really gets responsive (sorry to Storyline’s responsive player). What you can expect is that Rise 360 produces trendy responsive courses that look pretty dang good on any device. Yes, you can screw it up, but the tool holds your hand and makes you look good.

In my opinion, the responsive features in Lectora and Captivate are too cumbersome and not really mobile-first. Rise 360 makes a lot of sense, and is easy to pick up and run with.

“But won’t everything start to look the same?” Says a wary industry expert.

“So, you’ve used that same course UI for how many years for what reason?” Says Nick.

“But you’ll only be able to use the tools Articulate provides you.” Says Liddy McDeveloper.

“Sometimes less features are better.” Says All Great Modern Software.

Rise 360 is a responsive authoring tool that any learning designer/developer can figure out and get good at with a little practice. It doesn’t take advanced programming logic to make responsive materials with this tool. I’m not over-blowing the complexity of others, but I am highlighting the simplicity of Rise 360.

Honorable Mention: New features – Customizable course buttons and text + xAPI support… Yes, please!

Upgrade Grade: B+

If your team can author in Storyline, they can author in Rise 360. All that content you want in people’s pockets… yeah, it’s possible. While Rise isn’t the right solution for all mobile materials, it’s a huge step forward for just-in-time resources and reference materials. If you build it, they will come.

Articulate Content Library:

Weighing in at a svelte 1.5 million images (including characters’ bundles, illustrations, icons, and more), the content Library is another handy addition to the Articulate 360 Suite of tools. Not a designer? Grab a template and implement your brand standards… Or, just use it to improve your team’s designs. 

Killer Feature: Storyline Integration. Quickly implement included assets in your courses without needing to leave Storyline at all.

Upgrade Grade: B

This is a great supplement to your current stock photography and character sites. While it’s probably not a replacement, it could save time and money through quick integration while developing (less task switching) and could help reduce subscription needs on other stock sites.

Other Apps

 Replay 360:

Articulate Replay allows you to quickly record your screen, voice, and face simultaneously. Quickly edit to toggle between Screen and Presenter view and captions and lower-thirds with ease. Want to make style tutorials or training videos? This tool makes that easy. This is my favorite tool that I don’t consider in the core above.

Articulate Studio 360:

With the trio of Presenter 360, Engage 360, and Quizmaker 360… Articulate Studio 360 is a PowerPoint plug-in packing potent powerful publishing potential. Yes, I did that on purpose.

Articulate Studio 360 is a close relative of Storyline who you call when you don’t need the heavy lifting of the big kahuna. Have a page-turning slide deck? Call Studio. Want a splash of interactivity? Create templated interactions and quizzes for Presenter with Engage and Quizmaker.

Studio 360 was a separate purchase from Storyline in previous versions. With Articulate 360, it’s included.

Articulate Peek:

Peek is a quick and easy tool to record your screen for interacting on ideas with your team. Videos upload directly to Articulate Review so you can share a link and get feedback from anyone. Remember Screenr? Yeah, it’s kind of like that.

Bonus: Upload your Peek video to 360 Review, and Export to LMS. You can even tell the package to “Mark the user complete when the user watches 75% of the video.” Now any SME with Peek can make scorable video content for your LMS.

Articulate Live:

Weekly webinars to help the community learn. These are handy resources if your team is just getting started, and occasionally, there’s a treat for a grizzled vet.


This iPad app is a handy way to annotate images, add narration, and quickly make informal training videos on your tablet. Upload to Review 360 and export a scorable version quickly for LMS.

The Verdict

Total Upgrade Grade: B+

The Articulate 360 Suite of software doesn’t answer all your dying questions and doesn’t solve all your eLearning riddles. But guess what? Nothing else will either.

What it does do is continue to provide the best community, the best support, and the best tools that are accessible to all. Tools that people can pick up and run with.

Someday we’ll all easily be able to create advanced apps, VR, and games with crazy simple software, and hell… Articulate might be right there making that software.

Seeing my teammates get excited as they dig into the new tools and new possibilities is a reminder that this is a crazy-creative industry. So, at the end of the day, my recommendation is to put the best tools in the hands of your creative people. And right now, I think Articulate’s tools are leading the pack.

A standalone version of Storyline 3 (strongly rumored to be true) might have you holding off on taking the leap to Articulate 360, but dip your toe in… the water is fine.

Seven 2017 Learning Trends: Novel or Norm?


At the start of a new year – or the end of an old one – we love to read about trends. Articles on trends can be fun reads, but do they really help us see the future? Do trends really matter?

I’ll let you decide. I went back and found a 1998 ATD (then ASTD) State of the Industry report. Note that the “trends” listed in this report were often reported by only 1% – 2% of the respondents, who numbered in the 300 range. This meant only three or four respondents were citing these trends as tools or tactics in their talent development toolkits:

  • Computer-based training (CD-ROMs)
  • Electronic Performance Support Systems (Interesting fact: Google was founded in September 1998.)
  • Interactive video laser disks
  • Intranets
  • Coaching and mentoring
  • Individual development plans
  • 360-degree feedback

From Trend to Reality

If we look at 2017, we can see that 1998 trends were all hallmarks or rudimentary renditions of things we take for granted today:

  • Computer-based training delivered via CD-ROM has been replaced by custom-created eLearning delivered via the web as well as on-demand content from MOOCs,, or Software as a Service (SaaS) content providers such as Grovo or Skillsoft.
  • Early Electronic Performance Support Systems and intranets were the predecessors of modern help systems such as, YouTube, Wikipedia, or Google as well as collaboration, information sharing, and communication tools such as SharePoint, Slack, Basecamp, and Skype plus networking tools such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, or Twitter.
  • Interactive video laser disks were quickly replaced first by VHS and Beta videotape and now by videos that can be shot and edited via a smartphone and streamed via the web.
  • Coaching and mentoring, along with 360-degree feedback, have created an entire new industry and a plethora of assessment instruments. DISC, Strengthsfinder, Myers-Briggs, Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, EQ assessments, leadership inventories, etc. all exist to provide us with feedback and enable others to coach us.
  • Individual development plans are a foundational element/concept related to the learning management system and now talent management systems, which try to catalog skills and knowledge required for various positions and document the development plans that enable someone to be successful in a given role.

In short, those 1998 trends evolved into today’s reality over a span of years. But the evolution was not always fast. In fact, the 1999 “trends” probably looked similar to 1998’s version.

Fast Forward to 2017

There are really two groups of learning trends to watch in 2017. The exciting group that everyone wants to talk about is new on the scene. We are seeing the first signs of these trends, but it will take several years for their usage to become meaningful. The second group has already been talked about for several years, some of them as far back as 2008. But just like those trends from 1998, they are now becoming mainstream.

Three 2017 Emerging Trends


1. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

This one is getting ready to boom. Artificial intelligence and machine learning take in lots of data inputs and provide pinpoint guidance back to us. AI is already in the classroom. It’s available to us as consumers. It’s logical to believe that corporate learners are going to expect an evolved learning experience that goes beyond static, unchanging content as we move to the future.

We are seeing lots of examples of machine learning (self-driving cars use machine learning, for example). Predictions are for virtual assistants to find their way into more and more classrooms; some already exist today. It’s realistic to think that at some point, virtual assistants will make their way into the HR and L&D realm as well.

2. Virtual reality, augmented reality and mixed reality

These new reality technologies have been sitting on the horizon for years. Technology has finally gotten to the point where the opportunity is catching up to the promise. In 2016, VR headsets and game systems emerged on the market that are relatively 1) affordable, and 2) comfortable to use at least for up to 30 minutes. Older systems tended to make people motion sick very quickly. Motion sickness can still be a problem, but most people can tolerate it for periods of up to 30 minutes’ time.

The eLearning Guild has announced its first VR and AR conference in 2017, a sure sign that this is a technology that’s moving past “interesting to watch” to “great examples of its use are out there.”

3. Storytelling

This one is a sleeper. It is not about technology. It’s about how we get people to pay attention. We are all going to have to get better at telling stories and using stories to help people learn. Videos, VR, and games all lend themselves to stories so the ability to craft compelling stories is going to be key to effective use of technologies.

Four 2017 Established Trends


1. Microlearning

Simply put, microlearning is learning that is organized into small components or activities, typically about five minutes in length. Microlearning has been around as a term since the early 2000s; it has become immensely popular as a term in the past couple of years.

In the past three years, there has been a proliferation of SaaS solutions focused on microlearning, including Knowledge Guru, qStream, Axonify, Grovo, and Mindmarker.

Part of the push links to the uptick in interest is the arena of “learning science” and the science of learning. Increased awareness of the linkage between spaced repetition of content and long-term memory has sparked interest in microlearning.

2. Mobile

Mobile is no longer new, but it does appear to be “stuck” with adoption not proliferating as trend watchers predicted back in 2010, 2011, and 2012.  The constraints of the LMS – and lack of adoption of xAPI – keep it in limbo as a primary tool for learning. However, it’s an excellent tool for microlearning. The tools touted for microlearning rely heavily on smartphones to distribute their microlearning.

3. Gamification and learning games

This trend has moved mainstream. It is questionable whether it still warrants the term “trend” as the research is fairly compelling as to the efficacy of learning games as a tool.

Mobile games remain an intriguing learning solution, particularly when combined with the emerging interest in microlearning.

4. Interactive video, 360-degree video

Video keeps getting more and more useful as the tools available to produce it become more accessible. The newest iPhone, for example, has a very worthy video camera. It’s possible to shoot and edit a video all on a smartphone and then push it out to a video streaming site such as Vimeo or YouTube on that same phone.

Why Compare 1998 to 2017?


As I pondered trends from 1998, I concluded these things:

1. Change can feel slow, but we never stand still.

Year-to-year change can be so slow that we may fail to recognize when big change is around the corner. It takes a decade or more for dramatic change to start to become visible. In that time, some “trends” will morph into completely different technologies. Clearly CBT has morphed into the eLearning we currently have. The eLearning we have now is likely to morph into AI, VR, or AR… or something we cannot yet envision.

2. The influence of technology has touched every aspect of L&D.

It affects design, development, implementation, and tracking. It has also dramatically affected talent development. No area is untouched. The skill sets of today’s L&D professionals include technical abilities those in the 1990s would have not even imagined.

3. Despite the evolution of technology, the “what” of training has remained very stable… with a few twists.

The 1990s marked the dawn of technology in the workplace as we now know it. This meant a ton of training on how to use a computer or how to use software. We don’t need that today. However, managerial training remains a constant as does compliance, product, and process training.

Finally, in answer to the question I posed at the start of this post: yes, trends DO matter. We need to pay attention to them. What starts as a trend – with only 1% or 2% of early adopters using a process, tool, or technology – does find its way into the mainstream. But it may take a while (virtual reality and augmented reality have actually been on the landscape for a decade). I started attending to games and gamification in 2008 and it is now close to mainstream in 2017. Eventually, however, these early trends become the way we do things. What is novel today becomes the norm tomorrow.

Access the 2017 Learning and Remembering Report to view the results and analysis of our Learning and Remembering Survey.